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Posted by Andrew Bleiman

1 - Tasmanian Devil Joeys

Taronga Western Plains Zoo is pleased to announce the arrival of two healthy litters of Tasmanian Devil joeys! According to keepers, this is one of the most successful years to date for the Zoo’s Tasmanian Devil conservation breeding program.

The first litter of three joeys arrived on March 19 to mother Lana. Keepers were recently able to take a close look at each joey and confirm their sex (two males and one female). Another female, Pooki, birthed four joeys more recently on June 19, which are yet to emerge from the pouch.

“We’re very pleased to see nurturing, maternal instincts from both Lana and Pooki, who are both two-year-old females and first-time mothers,” Taronga Western Plains Zoo Senior Keeper Steve Kleinig said.

“The three joeys born in March…are now weaned (meaning they have left mother Lana’s pouch) but they still remain close by her side. They are now playing with each other and exploring independently outside the den.”

“The four joeys born in June are starting to open their eyes and become more aware of their surroundings. While they are still attached to their mother's teats, we’re expecting they will begin to leave their mother’s pouch in the coming weeks,” Steve said.

2 - Tasmanian Devil Joeys

3 - TWPZ Keepers Hayley Brooks  Karen James and Rachel Schildkraut with Tasmanian Devil JoeysPhoto Credits: Taronga Western Plains Zoo (Image 3: Keepers Hayley Brooks, Karen James, and Rachel Schildkraut)

Taronga Western Plains Zoo is part of a national insurance population program designed to help save the Tasmanian Devil from becoming extinct as a result of the Devil Facial Tumour Disease*.

The Zoo’s breeding success this year is the result of a more targeted approach, and has benefited from favorable breeding recommendations. These are based on the unique characteristics and genetics of a breeding pair and, combined with their compatibility upon meeting, can determine breeding success.

“We are continuing to collaborate with other breeding institutions to improve the long-term viability of our program, such as Devil Ark in the Barrington Tops, where Lana and Pooki came from, and Tasmania’s Trowunna Wildlife Park, where the father originated,” Steve said.

Taronga Western Plains Zoo has two breeding facilities for the Tasmanian Devil located behind the scenes. The Zoo has bred 31 healthy Tasmanian Devil joeys so far - a significant boost to the regional zoo-based insurance population of this endangered species.

With Tasmanian Devil numbers in the wild currently dwindling to between 15,000 and 50,000 individuals, every birth is significant. The mainland breeding program of which the Zoo is a part could play an important role in helping to re-establish healthy wild populations of the species in Tasmania if needed in future.

The Tasmanian Devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) is a carnivorous marsupial of the family Dasyuridae. It was once native to mainland Australia, but it is now found only in the wild on the island state of Tasmania, including tiny east coast Maria Island where there is a conservation project with disease-free animals.

The Tasmanian Devil is the size of a small dog and became the largest carnivorous marsupial in the world following the extinction of the Thylacine in 1936. It is related to Quolls and distantly related to the Thylacine.

It is characterized by its stocky and muscular build, black fur, pungent odor, extremely loud and disturbing screech, keen sense of smell, and ferocity when feeding. The Tasmanian Devil's large head and neck allow it to generate among the strongest bites per unit body mass of any extant mammal land predator, and it hunts prey and scavenges carrion as well as eating household products if humans are living nearby.

A breeding Tasmanian Devil female can produce up to 50 young that are about the size of a grain of rice. Competition for survival is fierce, and only the first four joeys are able to latch onto the mother’s teats.

In 2008, the Tasmanian Devil was assessed and classified as “Endangered” by the IUCN. In 2009, the Australian Government also listed the species as “Endangered”, under national environmental law.

*Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) is an infectious cancer that only affects Tasmanian Devils, and is transmitted through biting, fighting and mating. Since the first official case of DFTD in Australia in 1996, there has been a decline of up to 50-70 per cent of the Tasmanian Devil population across the majority of Tasmania.

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Posted by Story Nurse

This question came from the priority request queue for my Patreon patrons. Thanks for your support, letter writer!

Dear Story Nurse,

How do you write a sequel? Should I even write a sequel?

I’ve got an essentially-complete YA secondary-world fantasy and a couple months ago I got smacked in the head with the realization that it could easily be book 1 in a trilogy. I’ve got the broad plot strokes and themes of book 2 (and a few in book 3, for that matter), but every time I sit down to start the outline for book 2, I… end up working on something else.

Part of it is that if book 1 is sitting on my hard drive doing nothing, what’s the point of writing a book 2 that will do the same thing? (I’m working on book 1 not just sitting on my hard drive doing nothing, but that’s not necessarily relevant here.) And if book 1 ends up not doing anything, it’s a waste of time to write book 2, right?

The second one is that I have never written a sequel before. I googled “how to write a sequel,” because that’s what the internet is for, but the advice was manifold and contradictory. I did pick up the idea that sometimes you can jump straight into the plot at the beginning because you have all of book 1 as backstory now. But how closely is it expect that book 2 matches book 1 in pacing, tone, themes? Is it strange to jump from sort of a standard fairy-tale-based pseudo-medieval sword-and-sorcery story to something that more closely resembles a portal fantasy? Is it okay if I dump my entire cast of characters from book 1 down to 2 familiar names?

Am I thinking too hard here?

Anyway, any advice you have would be welcome.

Thank you,

Stephanie (she/her)

Dear Stephanie,

The answer to “am I thinking too hard” is almost always “yes.” Also, no writing is a waste of time if it’s writing you want to be doing. It’s fine to just go ahead and write for yourself and see what happens, without stressing about marketing (which is really what these questions are about). It’s also fine to listen to whatever part of you is nudging you away from that possible book two and move on to something else. But if you’d like more detailed advice on sequels, read on.

How and whether to write a sequel depends greatly on what kind of project you’re creating. Broadly speaking, groups of books tend to fall into one of these categories:

  • Serial, in which a single person or group’s overarching story is broken up into pieces. Those pieces might be story-length or novel-length or anywhere in between. J.R.R. Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings trilogy is a serial of this sort: you stay with the same characters all the way through, and the series has a very clear arc. The individual novels have sub-arcs but those don’t matter so much.
  • Divergent, in which episodes loosely follow on from one another but take different approaches and don’t always involve the same characters. N.K. Jemisin’s Inheritance Trilogy is a good example: they all have characters in common, and there is a single plot thread that runs through all three books, but each one has a different focus and a complete story. The books can’t quite stand alone, but if you pick up the third without reading the first two, you won’t be entirely lost.
  • Shared-setting, in which all the stories take place in one world (though they may happen in different parts of that world) and events in one story may influence another, but the individual works have few or no characters in common, and each story is self-contained. Many romance novel series work this way.
  • Episodic, in which a protagonist goes on a series of self-contained adventures without much in the way of larger change happening. Sitcoms and cozy mystery series often have this structure.

There are some mixes and blends of these forms—for example, the Discworld series is broadly shared-world with a number of groups of works that follow more of a serial or divergent model—but that’s probably not a thing you need to worry about right now. All you need to know is, if you decide to write more in your current setting, which of these forms would you like your series to take?

If you’re writing a serial, then yes, your readers will expect each book to have roughly similar pacing, themes, etc. But you don’t have to write a serial. It sounds like you’re more interested in writing several standalone stories of different types that happen to have a setting and perhaps some characters in common. This is a perfectly fine thing to do.

It’s very useful to know up front that you want to write a shared-setting series, because you’re going to have to set reader expectations appropriately (this is where the marketing comes in). Readers—and agents and publishers—have the default expectation that fantasy works are either standalone or serial in nature. So don’t call the series “The Adventures of Robin Hood” if Robin is only the star of book one and then barely appears in future books; your readers will be confused and disappointed. A name like “The Sherwood Forest Chronicles” will give them a little more notice that book two might be about Maid Marian solving a murder mystery and book three about Little John and Will Scarlett falling in love.

Having book two written or at least solidly in progress will help with pitching the series to publishers if that’s a thing you want to do, because you’re going to have to demonstrate that you’re capable of writing both a fairy-tale fantasy and a portal fantasy. Also, come prepared with the names of other authors who’ve done similar things. You might point out, for example, that the Narnia books started out as portal fantasy and then took a turn into secondary-world fantasy with The Horse and His Boy, in which characters from Earth only make brief appearances and there’s no travel between worlds. In other words, make it clear that you’re drawing on an established tradition within fantasy, even if you’re not writing a Tolkienesque trilogy. And do read series of that sort to see how other authors have handled bringing readers into a familiar setting while taking a new approach.

If you’re self-publishing, it may help to put the first two or even three novels out in quick succession, which of course requires writing them all in advance and having them lined up and ready to go. Doing your own marketing means you can play up your approach as a positive: “There’s something for everyone in the Sherwood Forest Chronicles, where each story is in a different genre!” (Or something like that. Marketing copy is not my strong suit.) You can use different styles of jacket art to suggest the different genres of the books, with shared visual elements linking them together. And once all the books are out, readers will help set one another’s expectations through their reviews.

Isn’t it nice to know that you aren’t the first person to break out of the serial mold and try this? Readers and publishers might be a little surprised, but they won’t be shocked.

Don’t let book one’s current just-sitting-there state discourage you from writing further. Writing a series means playing a long game, investing considerable time and effort up front in hopes of considerable returns down the road. If this is what you want to be writing, go ahead and write it.

Happy writing!

Cheers,

Story Nurse

This advice is brought to you by my generous patrons on Patreon. Got a writing question? Ask the Story Nurse!

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Posted by Andrew Bleiman

1_Rhino Calf 2488 - Grahm S. Jones  Columbus Zoo and Aquarium

The Wilds welcomed a female Southern White Rhinoceros calf born in the pasture during the afternoon of October 5. The calf is the second fifth-generation White Rhino to be born outside of Africa (both fifth-generation calves were born at The Wilds).

The new calf was born to second-time mother, Anan, and first-time father, Roscoe. Anan’s first calf, a male named Letterman (born at The Wilds in 2014), was the first fifth-generation White Rhino to be born outside of Africa.

Anan had a notable birth herself, as she was the first fourth-generation Rhino to be born outside of Africa, and she, too, was born at The Wilds. Anan’s mother, Zen, was the very first Rhino born at The Wilds in 2004 and is still a part of the conservation center’s breeding herd.

The Wilds animal management team members have observed that the new calf is strong and is nursing in the pasture. This is the 17th White Rhino born at The Wilds; the conservation center has also produced seven Asian One-horned Rhinos.

2_Rhino Calf 2539 - Grahm S. Jones  Columbus Zoo and Aquarium

3_Rhino Calf 2665 - Grahm S. Jones  Columbus Zoo and Aquarium

4_Rhino Calf 2753 - Grahm S. Jones  Columbus Zoo and AquariumPhoto Credits: Grahm S. Jones / Columbus Zoo and Aquarium

The breeding recommendations are part of the Association of Zoos and Aquariums’ (AZA) Species Survival Plan® (SSP) to enhance conservation of these species in their native range and to maintain a sustainable population of rhinos in human care.

“Every birth at The Wilds is significant, but this one is particularly special to us. With each new generation of Rhinos born, it is a testament to the success of the breeding program at The Wilds but more importantly a success for this species as a whole. The Wilds is proud to be a part of the conservation initiatives ensuring the survival of this species,” said Dr. Jan Ramer, vice president of The Wilds.

The White Rhino population had dwindled to perhaps only 50-200 at the beginning of the 20th century, but through conservation efforts, the population of White Rhinos in their native African range has rebounded to about 20,400 animals. However, even with the increase in numbers, the species remains classified as “Near Threatened” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). All five remaining Rhino species in Africa and Asia (White Rhinoceros, Black Rhinoceros, Greater One-horned Rhinoceros, Javan Rhinoceros, and Sumatran Rhinoceros) are persecuted by poachers who sell the horns for ornamental or traditional medicinal purposes, even though there are no scientifically proven health benefits for its use. The horns are made of keratin—the same substance that makes up fingernails and hair. The International Rhino Foundation, which receives support from The Wilds, estimates that one Rhino is killed every eight hours for its horn.

The Southern White Rhinoceros or Southern Square-lipped Rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum) is one of the two subspecies of the White Rhinoceros (the other being the Northern White Rhinoceros). It is the most common and widespread subspecies of Rhino.

White Rhino calves are born after a gestation of 16 months and they can grow to be 4,000 pounds and six feet tall at their shoulder. Their natural habitats are plains or woodlands, interspersed with grassy openings. Through reintroduction efforts, their current range in the wild is in southern and eastern African countries.

Their physical characteristics are two pointed horns and a wide mouth suitable for grazing. The name White Rhinoceros originated from the Afrikaans word describing the animal’s mouth: wyd, meaning “wide.” Early English settlers in South Africa misinterpreted the word wyd for “white.”

To further protect the future of Rhinos, The Wilds and the Columbus Zoo has provided more than $196,000 in the last five years in support of conservation projects benefiting Rhinos in their native ranges, such as monitoring Black and White Rhinos in Zimbabwe’s Lowveld region through the International Rhino Foundation and protecting Black Rhinos in the Ngulia Rhino Sanctuary in Kenya through the African Wildlife Foundation.

5_Rhino Calf 2705 - Grahm S. Jones  Columbus Zoo and Aquarium

6_Rhino Calf 2552 - Grahm S. Jones  Columbus Zoo and Aquarium

7_Rhino Calf 2696 - Grahm S. Jones  Columbus Zoo and Aquarium

[syndicated profile] survivingtheworld_feed


I am a grading fiend right now, 115 mid-term exams to grade from two different courses over three different sections. Here's one of the exam problems I gave them. It's got just a touch of ridiculous to it. Enjoy, or don't, I guess.

Cheetah Cubs Born at Basel Zoo

Oct. 15th, 2017 07:10 am
[syndicated profile] zooborns_feed

Posted by Andrew Bleiman

Geparden_mit_jungtieren_ZO55406

After spending months tucked away with their mother, two Cheetah cubs born at Basel Zoo can now be seen by zoo visitors. The cubs have been named Opuwo and Onysha.

Born on July 18 to first-time mother Novi and father Gazembe, the cubs’ birth is the result of careful planning and strategy by the zoo staff. 

Geparden_mit_jungtieren_ZOB7307
Geparden_mit_jungtieren_ZO59166
Geparden_mit_jungtieren_ZOB7306Photo Credit:  Basel Zoo

Cheetahs are solitary animals and will only tolerate having a partner nearby during mating season. To encourage breeding, male and female Cheetahs take turns living several enclosures behind the scenes. This allows each Cat to become familiar with a potential mate’s scent, which may encourage breeding.

If a female Cheetah shows interest in a male Cheetah, the zoo keeper must place them together immediately and hope that sparks fly. So far, this strategy has been successful for Basel Zoo with a total of 29 Cheetah cubs born there to date. The first Cheetahs arrived at Basel Zoo in 1936, but the first successful breeding occurred in 1993. Breeding Cheetahs remains a challenge for zoos. Of the more than 100 zoos holding Cheetahs in the EEP (European Endangered Species Programme), only around ten zoos had cubs this year.

It is typical for wild Cheetah mothers to move their newborns to new hiding places, so the family’s move to the zoo’s outdoor habitat on October 6 aligns with this instinct. 

Cheetahs are classed as Vulnerable on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. According to an estimate by the IUCN, there were only 7,500 Cheetahs in all of Africa in 2008. This number is now thought to have dropped to 5,000.

See more photos of the Cheetah cubs below.

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Student Presentation #27 - Empathy

Oct. 14th, 2017 10:30 am
[syndicated profile] survivingtheworld_feed


One of my favorite actual-real-life students, Kim, sent me this chart she made while taking notes during a conference today, and I liked it so much that I made it today's STW. Whichever PhD program takes her in, they're going to get an excellent kid who will have a positive impact all around. Thanks, Kim!

Help Name This Baby Otter!

Oct. 14th, 2017 06:43 am
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Posted by Chris Eastland

KCZoo Baby Otter 3

A male Asian Small-clawed Otter at the Kansas City Zoo needs a name, and you can submit your favorite here until October 20.

The tiny male was born on August 27 to mom Cai, age 10, and dad Ian, age six.  Both parents are caring for their baby behind the scenes. The zoo staff says it will be a few more weeks before the family returns to their exhibit habitat.

KCZoo Baby Otter 2
20171003_162708Photo Credit: Kansas City Zoo

All of the baby Otter names submitted through October 20 will be reviewed by the zoo staff. The top four names will be selected and announced on the zoo’s Facebook page for a final vote from October 20 through November 3. The zoo plans to announce the winner on November 10.

Asian Small-clawed Otters live in wetlands and mangrove swamps in Southeast Asia, where they feed on Crustaceans and Mollusks. Every aspect of the Otter’s body is designed for efficient swimming, including the long, torpedo-shaped body, muscular tail, flattened head, and webbed feet. These Otters are the smallest of the world’s 13 Otter species.

Due to habitat degradation, illegal hunting, and pollution of waterways, Asian Small-clawed Otters are listed as Vulnerable by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species.  The Kansas City Zoo, along with other accredited North American zoos, participates in the Association of Zoos & Aquariums’ Species Survival Plan to breed rare species and maintain a high level of genetic diversity in populations under human care.

 

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Posted by Chris Eastland

2_22254689_10155585279380149_6956957991965514236_o

On July 21, two Binturongs at Tierpark Berlin became proud parents. Vincent and Fiona welcomed four offspring when sixteen-year-old Fiona gave birth to two females and two males.

The four fluffy siblings have been tucked away with their mother since their birth, but on September 28 they received their first veterinarian exam and vaccinations. Visitors to the park can now see the curious quad exploring their outdoor exhibit.

"The special thing about this litter is that almost all the young animals look the same", explained park curator, Christian Kern. "Only one has a slightly lighter head. Usually, [Binturongs] siblings are quite different in the facial and skin coloring."

1_22219929_10155585279370149_5947056693935805177_o

3_22218601_10155585279375149_8376468431199241281_o

4_22179911_10155585279830149_7434153292353878084_oPhoto Credits: Tierpark Berlin

The Binturong (Arctictis binturong), also known as a Bearcat, is a viverrid that is native to South and Southeast Asia.

Binturongs are omnivorous, feeding on small mammals, birds, fish, earthworms, insects and fruits.

The estrous period of the Binturong is 81 days, with a gestation of 91 days. The average age of sexual maturation is 30.4 months for females and 27.7 months for males. The binturong is one of approximately 100 species of mammal believed by many experts to be capable of embryonic diapause, or delayed implantation, which allows the female of the species to time parturition to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. Typical litters consist of two offspring, but up to six may occur.

It is uncommon in much of its range, and has been assessed and classified as “Vulnerable” on the IUCN Red List due to a declining population trend that is estimated at more than 30% over the last three decades. The main threat to the species is severe destruction of habitats in their native parts of the world.

The EAZA has established a conservation breeding program for Binturongs, including Tierpark Berlin’s animals. Tierpark Berlin supports the organization ABConservation, which specializes in the protection of the Binturongs, at its Bearcat Study Program on Palawan Island in the Philippines.

"Binturongs are kept in a comparatively large number of European zoos, but their breeding does not work regularly. The pairs must harmonize well in order to reproduce. It is therefore all the more pleasing that our Berlin couple have regularly been up-and-coming since 2003," said Zoo and Tierpark Director Dr. Andreas Knieriem.

Currently, the Binturong at Tierpark Berlin are the only ones in Germany. The four siblings are also currently yet-to-be-named.

Lesson #3325 - Changing Things

Oct. 13th, 2017 10:30 am
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I've made this case on here a number of times, I think, that nothing will change if you aren't there and speaking up and working to change it. You need to be present on the inside as opposed to hoping your standing outside will have an effect. So I think I should have considered the case I've made a bunch of times before jumping on the boycott of Twitter today - a statement is a statement but some statements are louder than others, and deserve even more volume.

It may seem stupid but it's important to remember when you can do better at even the little things. I'll remember next time, whatever little I can add.

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Posted by Andrew Bleiman

1_jaguarwelpen_buiten_nieuwsbericht_2017_3_1920x1328.jpg__1920x0_q85_subsampling-2

The two Jaguar cubs born at ARTIS Zoo on June 28 recently explored their outdoor exhibit. Zoo visitors can now see the male and female on a regular basis, putting to practice their natural stalking abilities and big-cat skills.

The cubs are unique in their appearance. Both cubs have what is known as “color morphism” and are black in color (their father is also black). Color morphism is known to occur in the Jaguar species. Jaguars with melanism appear almost entirely black, although their spots are still visible on closer examination.

Melanistic Jaguars (or “black” jaguars) occur primarily in South America, and are virtually unknown in wild populations residing regions of North America. They are informally known as “Black Panthers”, but they do not form a separate species.

Extremely rare albino individuals, sometimes called “White Panthers”, also occur among Jaguars.

2_jaguarwelpen_buiten_nieuwsbericht_2017_1_1920x1247.jpg__1920x1247_q85_crop_subsampling-2_upscale

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4_jaguarwelpen_buiten_nieuwsbericht_7_1920x1080.jpg__1920x1430_q85_crop_subsampling-2_upscale (1)Photo Credits: ARTIS/Joke Kok

The Jaguar (Panthera onca) is a big cat and is the only extant Panthera species native to the Americas. The Jaguar is the third-largest feline species after the Tiger and the Lion, and the largest in the Americas.

The Jaguar's present range extends from Southwestern United States and Mexico across much of Central America and south to Paraguay and northern Argentina. The species has largely been extirpated from the United States since the early 20th century.

This spotted cat most closely resembles the Leopard physically, although it is usually larger and of sturdier build and its behavioral and habitat characteristics are closer to those of the Tiger.

Dense rainforest is its preferred habitat, but it will range across a variety of forested and open terrains. Its preferred habitats are usually swamps and wooded regions, but Jaguars also live in scrublands and deserts. It is notable, along with the Tiger, as a feline that enjoys swimming.

The Jaguar is largely solitary, opportunistic, and a stalk-and-ambush predator at the top of the food chain. It is a keystone species, playing an important role in stabilizing ecosystems and regulating the populations of the animals it hunts. The Jaguar has an exceptionally powerful bite, even relative to the other big cats. This allows it to pierce the shells of armored reptiles and to employ an unusual killing method: it bites directly through the skull of prey between the ears to deliver a fatal bite to the brain.

The Jaguar is classified as “Near Threatened” on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and its numbers are declining. Threats include loss and fragmentation of habitat. While international trade in Jaguars or their parts is prohibited, the cat is still frequently killed by humans, particularly in conflicts with ranchers and farmers in South America.

ARTIS is part of the European Breeding Program for Jaguars. As a result, the black male and spotted female met at the end of last year, and several coverings were observed. Once pregnant, the two Jaguars were separated again. A female has a gestation period of about three to four months. The female raised the cubs on her own, and after one-and-a-half to two years, the young cubs become independent of their mother’s care.

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Lesson #3323 - In/Out

Oct. 11th, 2017 10:30 am
[syndicated profile] survivingtheworld_feed


Congratulations to all who came out on National Coming Out Day today; to all still waiting, may you one day feel welcome and safe enough to do so. And at the very least, may you all find happiness wherever you end up.

Here's another comic for many friends and for many others.

[syndicated profile] zooborns_feed

Posted by Andrew Bleiman

1_22289745_10159310045645648_8046933304128197295_o

Zoo Knoxville has successfully hatched two female Bali Mynahs as part of a collaborative effort of accredited zoos to save them from extinction.

The two females hatched to parents Zane and Kadek, both of whom arrived at Zoo Knoxville as a recommended pairing from the Species Survival Plan. Theirs are the first clutch of Bali Mynah eggs to hatch at the zoo since 1995, and this is the first time Zane and Kadek have successfully produced offspring.

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4_22181651_10159310045400648_8715219188370794436_oPhoto Credits: Zoo Knoxville

Zoo Knoxville is actively working with the Bali Mynah Species Survival Plan (SSP), a collaborative, nationwide effort by zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) to save this species from extinction. Currently, approximately 1,000 Bali mynahs are part of the breeding population worldwide.

“We are focusing on species that need our help to make a difference for the future of those populations,” said Michael Ogle, Zoo Knoxville’s Curator of Ornithology and Herpetology. “Every chick counts when you have a population as vulnerable as the Bali Mynah, and the two hatched here in Knoxville are part of a bigger safety net that accredited zoos are working to maintain.”

The Bali Mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi), also known as Rothschild's Mynah, Bali Starling, or Bali Myna, or Jalak Bali, is a medium-sized (up to 25 cm (9.8 in) long) bird native to the island of Bali in Indonesia.

These birds are classified as “Critically Endangered” by the IUCN Red List. They have been driven to near-extinction due to unsustainable and illegal trapping to meet the demand for the pet trade. Fewer than 100 Bali Mynahs remain in their native range.

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